Adoption

C. E. Brock Mansfield Park Fanny's arrival at Mansfield ParkIn Mansfield Park, the wealthy Sir Thomas and Lady Bertram decide to take in the ten-year old daughter of Lady Bertram’s impecunious sister, Mrs. Price. This was not an unusual procedure in Jane Austen’s time. One of Jane Austen’s own brothers was adopted by some of his father’s wealthy relations. Thomas and Catherine Knight were childless and took an interest in Edward Austen, the third child of George and Cassandra Austen. At the age of twelve, he went to live with them. He inherited their family estates including Godmersham and, in compliance with a stipulation in Catherine Knight’s will, he changed his legal name to Knight in 1812. Four years after George Austen’s death, Edward made some improvements to Chawton Cottage and offered it to his mother and sisters. It was at Chawton that Jane Austen prepared Sense and Sensibility and Pride and Prejudice for publication and wrote Mansfield Park, Emma, and Persuasion. Edward married Elizabeth Bridges in 1791. They had eleven children. Their eldest, Fanny Catherine, was one of Jane Austen’s favorite nieces.

George Austen presenting his son Edward to Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Knight

With four children of his own, Sir Thomas was, of course, not going to make Fanny Price his heir. However, he fully intended that, if Fanny was unable to obtain a creditable establishment through marriage, to secure her “the provision of a gentlewoman” (ch. 1). He also assisted Mrs. Price “liberally in the education and disposal of her sons” (ch. 2) and eventually takes in Fanny’s sister Susan (when she was fourteen). “In her usefulness, in Fanny’s excellence, in William’s continued good conduct and rising fame, and in the general well-doing and success of the other members of the family, all assisting to advance each other, and doing credit to his countenance and aid, Sir Thomas saw repeated, and for ever repeated, reason to rejoice in what he had done for them all” (ch. 48).

A Very Pretty Amber Cross

C.E. Brock Mansfield Park Oh this is beautiful indeedIn Mansfield Park, Fanny’s sailor-brother William brings her a “very pretty amber cross” from Sicily. He had wanted to buy her a gold chain too, but could not afford it. Fanny wears it on a bit of ribbon, but when their uncle plans a ball in her honor, she is not sure that a ribbon would be allowable. But not to wear the cross at all might mortify her brother. Miss Crawford offers her a necklace to wear it on. She is really tricking Fanny into accepting a gift from her brother, Henry, however, and Fanny feels uneasy about the gift. “On reaching home Fanny went immediately upstairs to deposit this unexpected acquisition, this doubtful good of a necklace,” and finds her cousin Edmund there. He tells her, “I … beg your acceptance of this little trifle — a chain for William’s cross. … I hope you will like the chain itself, Fanny. I endeavoured to consult the simplicity of your taste; but, at any rate, I know you will be kind to my intentions, and consider it, as it really is, a token of the love of one of your oldest friends.” Fanny opens the package and finds “a plain gold chain, perfectly simple and neat” and she bursts forth, “Oh, this is beautiful indeed! This is the very thing, precisely what I wished for! This is the only ornament I have ever had a desire to possess. It will exactly suit my cross. They must and shall be worn together.” When he hears about Miss Crawford’s gift, Edmund advises Fanny to wear that to the ball and save his chain for other occasions. However, when Fanny dresses for the ball and

she came to the necklaces again, her good fortune seemed complete, for upon trial the one given her by Miss Crawford would by no means go through the ring of the cross. She had, to oblige Edmund, resolved to wear it; but it was too large for the purpose. His, therefore, must be worn; and having, with delightful feelings, joined the chain and the cross — those memorials of the two most beloved of her heart, those dearest tokens so formed for each other by everything real and imaginary — and put them round her neck, and seen and felt how full of William and Edmund they were, she was able, without an effort, to resolve on wearing Miss Crawford’s necklace too. She acknowledged it to be right. Miss Crawford had a claim; and when it was no longer to encroach on, to interfere with the stronger claims, the truer kindness of another, she could do her justice even with pleasure to herself. (Ch. 27)

The story of Fanny’s cross is beautifully detailed. It is probable that Jane Austen got the idea for it from a gift from her own sailor-brother, Charles Austen. Charles was the youngest Austen child — the only one younger than Jane. In a letter to her sister Cassandra, Jane Austen calls him “[o]ur own particular little brother” (January 21, 1799). In 1801, Jane wrote to Cassandra,

Charles … has received 30£. for his share of the privateer, and expects 10£. more; but of what avail is it to take prizes if he lays out the produce in presents to his sisters? He has been buying gold chains and topaze crosses for us. He must be well scolded. The “Endymion” has already received orders for taking troops to Egypt, which I should not like at all if I did not trust to Charles being removed from her somehow or other before she sails. He knows nothing of his own destination, he says, but desires me to write directly, as the “Endymion” will probably sail in three or four days. He will receive my yesterday’s letter, and I shall write again by this post to thank and reproach him. We shall be unbearably fine.

Cassandra and Jane - crosses

In the illustration, the cross Charles gave to Cassandra is on the left and Jane’s is on the right. Charles was not Jane Austen’s only sailor-brother. Francis Austen also went to sea and eventually rose to the position of Admiral of the Fleet. Jane Austen wrote to him in July 1813, asking his permission to mention some of his ships in Mansfield Park:

You will be glad to hear that every Copy of S&S is sold … I have now therefore written myself into £250. — which only makes me long for more. I have something in hand — which I hope on the credit of P. & P. will sell well, tho’ not half so entertaining. And by the bye — shall you object to my mentioning the Elephant in it, & two or three other of your old Ships? — I have done it, but it shall not stay, to make you angry. — They are only just mentioned.

A couple months later, Jane Austen again wrote to him, thanking him for his “kind consent to my application”. The ships mentioned in Mansfield Park are the Cleopatra, Elephant, and Endymion.

Fanny’s chain holds such a significant place in the novel that it was used by Coralie Bickford-Smith as a motif on a 2011 hardback edition of Mansfield Park, published as part of Penguin’s Clothbound Classics series. It was used again along with her cross to ornament the lovely cover of the 2012 paperback Penguin English Library edition of Mansfield Park.

2011 Penguin’s Clothbound Classics Mansfield Park 2012 Penguin English Library Mansfield Park

Reused Costumes – 1999

Quite a few of the costumes in the 1999 version of ‘Mansfield Park’ have been reused  from or in other productions. Here is a list I’ve collected from RecycledMovieCostumes.com:

A pink dress worn by an extra at Fanny’s ball was also worn by Mrs. Forster (Victoria Hamilton) in ‘Pride and Prejudice’ (1995), an extra at the Westons’ ball in ‘Emma’ (1996), an extra in ‘St. Ives’ (1998), an extra in ‘Quills’ (2000), an extra in ‘Byron’ (2003), and an extra at a ball in London in ‘Sense and Sensibility’ (2008).

1 pink dress

1 Pride and Prejudice 1 1 Pride and Prejudice 2 1 Pride and Prejudice 3

1 Emma 1 1 Emma 2 1 Emma 3

1 Byron

1 Sense and Sensibility

The long, green coat that Susan Price wears was also worn by Charlotte Lucas (Lucy Scott) in ‘Pride and Prejudice’ (1995), by Clara Copperfield (Emelia Fox) to her husband’s funereal in ‘David Copperfield’ (1999), by Annabella, Lady Byron (Julie Cox) in ‘Byron’ (2003), and by Kitty Bennet (Florence Hoath) at Jane’s wedding in ‘Lost in Austen’ (2008).

2 long green coat 1 2 long green coat 2 2 long green coat 3

2 Pride and Prejudice 3 2 Pride and Prejudice 1 2 Pride and Prejudice 2

2 Byron 1 2 Byron 2 2 Byron 3

Mary Crawford wears a wine colored, gold embroidered dress while rehearsing ‘Lovers’ Vows’. This costume was also worn by Lady Frances Nelson (Anna Massey) in ‘I Remember Nelson’ (1982), Martha Brett (Belinda Lang) in ‘The Bretts (1987), an extra in ‘Duel of Hearts’ (1991), Lady Apthorpe (Jacqueline Pearce) in ‘Princess Caraboo’ (1994), an extra at the ball in London in ‘Sense and Sensibility’ (1995), in ‘Napoleon’ (2002), Lady Holland (Jane How) in ‘Byron’ (2003), and Sue Perkins in ‘The Supersizers Go: French Revolution’ (2009).

3 gold embroidered wine overdress 1 3 gold embroidered wine overdress 2

3 Sense and Sensibility 1 3 Sense and Sensibility 2 3 Sense and Sensibility 3

3 Byron

The cream, embroidered dress Maria Bertram wears was reused as a dressing gown on Fanny Dorrit (Emma Pierson) in ‘Little Dorrit’ (2008). It is also worn by Maria Oldknow (Carice van Houten) in ‘From Time to Time’ (2009) and Jane Hayes (Keri Russell) in ‘Austenland’ (2013).

4 embroidered cream dress 1 4 embroidered cream dress 2 4 embroidered cream dress 3

4 Little Dorrit 1 4 Little Dorrit 2 4 Little Dorrit 3

4 From Time to Time 1 4 From Time to Time 2 4 From Time to Time 3

4 Austenland 1 4 Austenland 3 4 Austenland 2

The green dress with red trim worn by a woman in London with Henry Crawford was previously worn by Fanny Dashwood (Harriet Walter) in ‘Sense and Sensibility’ (1995).

5 green dress with red trim 1 5 green dress with red trim 2

5 Sense and Sensibility 1 5 Sense and Sensibility 2 5 Sense and Sensibility 3

Mrs. Norris’s yellow dress is also worn by Mrs. Meagles (Janine Duvitski) at Arthur Clennam’s wedding in ‘Little Dorrit’ (2008) and an extra at the Westons’ ball in ‘Emma’ (2009).

6 yellow dress 1 6 yellow dress 2 6 yellow dress 3

6 Little Dorrit 1 6 Little Dorrit 2 6 Little Dorrit 3

Susan’s striped, drop-front day dress was also worn by a maid in ‘Byron’ (2003), an extra in ‘Eroica’ (2003), Marianne Dashwood (Charity Wakefield) in London in ‘Sense and Sensibility’ (2008), and Hanna (Mary Roscoe) in ‘Great Expectations’ (2011). A dress from the same fabric but with different sleeves and lacking the drop-front is worn by Mrs. Morland (Helen Fraser) in ‘Northanger Abbey’ (1986), Harriet Wantage (Suzanna Hamilton) in ‘Duel of Hearts’ (1991), Ella (Kate Ashfield) in ‘Princess Caraboo’ (1994), and by Harriet Smith (Toni Collette) to receive Mr. Elton’s charade in ‘Emma’ (1996).

7 striped drop-front day dress 1 7 striped drop-front day dress 2 7 striped drop-front day dress 3

7 Sense and Sensibility 1 7 Sense and Sensibility 2 7 Sense and Sensibility 3

7 Great Expectations 1 7 Great Expectations 2 7 Great Expectations 3

7 Emma 1 7 Emma 2 7 Emma 3

The red print gown worn by Mrs. Norris has the distinction of being used in two versions of Mansfield Park, being also worn by Mary Crawford (Hayley Atwell) at Maria’s wedding in ‘Mansfield Park’ (2007). It is also worn by Lady Russell (Susan Fleetwood) at the party at Camden Place in ‘Persuasion’ (1995), Catherine Bigg (played by ?) in ‘The Real Jane Austen’ (2002), a guest at a London ball in ‘Byron’ (2003), Elizabeth Devonport to dinner in ‘The Regency House Party’ (2004), Anne Steele (Daisy Haggard) to dinner in London in ‘Sense & Sensibility’ (2008), and Mrs. Bennet (Alex Kingston) in ‘Lost in Austen’ (2008).

8 Mansfield Park 3 8 Mansfield Park 2 8 Mansfield Park 1

ITV ARCHIVE 8 red print gown 3 8 red print gown 2

8 Persuasion 1 8 Persuasion 3 8 Persuasion 2

8 Byron 1 8 Byron 2

 

8 Sense and Sensibility 1 8 Sense and Sensibility 3 8 Sense and Sensibility 2

8 Lost in Austen 1 8 Lost in Austen 3 8 Lost in Austen 2

The pale blue spencer Julia Bertram wears at the end was previously worn by Georgiana Darcy (Emilia Fox) in ‘Pride and Prejudice’ (1995).

9 pale blue spencer 1 9 pale blue spencer 2 9 pale blue spencer 3

9 Pride and Prejudice 1 9 Pride and Prejudice 2 9 Pride and Prejudice 3

Lady Bertram’s green dress with the sheer overlay was previously worn by Elizabeth Bennet (Jennifer Ehle) in ‘Pride and Prejudice’ (1995) and subsequently worn by an extra in ‘Doctor Who: A Good Man Goes to War’ (2011).

10 green dress with sheer overlay 1 10 green dress with sheer overlay 2 10 green dress with sheer overlay 3

10 Pride and Prejudice 1 10 Pride and Prejudice 2 10 Pride and Prejudice 3

The pink spencer Julia wears in London with the Rushworths was also worn by Kitty Bennet (Polly Maberly) in ‘Pride and Prejudice’ (1995), an extra in ‘Emma’ (1996), Henrietta Musgrove (Rosamund Stephen) in ‘Persuasion’ (2007), a Miss Martin at Harriet Smith’s wedding in ‘Emma’ (2009).

11 pink spencer

11 Pride and Prejudice 1 11 Pride and Prejudice 2 11 Pride and Prejudice 3

11 Emma 96 1 11 Emma 96 2

11 Persuasion 1 11 Persuasion 2 11 Persuasion 3

11 Emma 2009

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Disclaimer: I have not seen, nor do I recommend, all of the movies mentioned in this post.

Reused Costumes – 2007

Quite a few of the costumes in the 2007 version of ‘Mansfield Park’ have been reused  from other productions. Here is a list I’ve collected from Imdb.com and RecycledMovieCostumes.com:

The dark patterned muslin gown worn by Fanny Price at Maria’s wedding is the same gown Mrs. Dashwood (Gemma Jones) wears when Edward comes to Barton Cottage in ‘Sense and Sensibility’ (1995) when Edward comes to Barton Cottage, Miss Briggs (Janet Dale) wears at Park Lane in ‘Vanity Fair’ (1998), Mrs. Curtain (Pauline Moran) wears when Byron arrives for the wedding in ‘Byron’ (2003), and an wears extra at the Meryton Assembly Ball in ‘Pride & Prejudice’ (2005).

ITV ARCHIVE 1 dark patterned gown 2 1 dark patterned gown 3

1 Sense and Sensibility 1 1 Sense and Sensibility 2 1 Sense and Sensibility 3

1 Byron

1 Pride and Prejudice

The windowpane check gown worn by Fanny Price to cut lavender is the same gown worn by Elinor Dashwood (Emma Thompson) in ‘Sense and Sensibility’ (1995), Alice Cottisloe (Honeysuckle Weeks) in ‘Victoria Wood with All the Trimmings’ (‘Plots and Proposals’, 2000), an extra at the London party where Byron meets Annabella Milbanke in ‘Byron’ (2003), Victoria Hopkins in ‘The Regency House Party’ (2004), Henrietta Musgrove (Rosamund Stephen) in ‘Persuasion’ (2007), and Isabella Linton (Nicola Burley) in ‘Wuthering Heights’ (2011).

2 windowpane check gown 1 2 windowpane check gown 2 2 windowpane check gown 3

2 Sense and Sensibility 1 2 Sense and Sensibility 2 2 Sense and Sensibility 3

2 Persuasion 1 2 Persuasion 2 2 Persuasion 3

2 Wuthering Heights 1 2 Wuthering Heights 2 2 Wuthering Heights 3

The gown of patterned gray muslin worn by Fanny during the play rehearsal scene is the same gown worn by Sally Hemings (Thandie Newton) in ‘Jefferson in Paris’ (1995) and by Sarah (Jessica Oyelowo) in ‘Sleepy Hollow’ (1999).

3 patterned gray 1 3 patterned gray 2 3 patterned gray 3

The white muslin dress with yellow overdress Maria wears during the scene in which Sir Thomas asks her if she still wants to marry Mr. Rushworth is the same gown Marianne Dashwood (Kate Winslet) wears in ‘Sense and Sensibility’ (1995) and a farmhouse servant wears in ‘Eroica’ (2003).

4 yellow overdress 1 4 yellow overdress 2 4 yellow overdress 3

raison et sentiments 4 Sense and Sensibility 2 4 Sense and Sensibility 3

In the play rehearsal scene, Tom Bertram wears a brocade suit that was also worn by Sir Walter Elliot (Corin Redgrave) in ‘Persuasion’ (1995) in which he tries to induce Anne to accompany him to Lady Dalrymple’s.

5 brocade suit 1 5 brocade suit 2 5 brocade suit 3

5 Persuasion 1 5 Persuasion 2 5 Persuasion 3

The cream gown with red trim Mary Crawford wears to the picnic is the same costume Becky Sharp (Natasha Little) wears at the Sedley’s house in ‘Vanity Fair’ (1998) and Cesca Martin wears in ‘The Regency House Party’ (2004).

6 cream and red dress 1 6 cream and red dress 2 6 cream and red dress 3

The tan and black striped gown with a black crepe bow on the bodice worn by Lady Bertram in the final scene is the same gown worn by Mrs. Dashwood (Gemma Jones) to play cards at Barton Park in ‘Sense and Sensibility’ (1995), by Mrs. Lefroy (Wendy Craig) in ‘The Real Jane Austen’ (2002), by Lady Judith Milbanke (Penny Downie) at dinner, after Annabella returns to her parents’ house in ‘Byron’ (2003), by Rosemary Enright to dinner in ‘The Regency House Party’ (2004), by an extra at the Netherfield Ball in ‘Pride & Prejudice’ (2005), and by Lady Ludlow (Francesca Annis) in ‘Cranford’ (2007).

7 tan and black striped gown

7 Sense and Sensibility 1 7 Sense and Sensibility 2 7 Sense and Sensibility 3

7 Byron

7 Pride and Prejudice 1 7 Pride and Prejudice 2

CRANFORD Cranford Cranford

The red print gown worn by Mary Crawford has the distinction of being used in two versions of Mansfield Park, being also worn by Mrs. Norris (Sheila Gish) while Fanny reads the newspaper aloud in ‘Mansfield Park’ (1999), It is also worn by Lady Russell (Susan Fleetwood) at the party at Camden Place in ‘Persuasion’ (1995), Catherine Bigg (played by ?) in ‘The Real Jane Austen’ (2002), a guest at a London ball in ‘Byron’ (2003), Elizabeth Devonport to dinner in ‘The Regency House Party’ (2004), Anne Steele (Daisy Haggard) to dinner in London in ‘Sense & Sensibility’ (2008), and Mrs. Bennet (Alex Kingston) in ‘Lost in Austen’ (2008).

ITV ARCHIVE 8 red print gown 2 8 red print gown 3

8 Mansfield Park 1 8 Mansfield Park 2 8 Mansfield Park 3

8 Persuasion 1 8 Persuasion 2 8 Persuasion 3

8 Byron 1 8 Byron 2

8 Sense and Sensibility 1 8 Sense and Sensibility 2 8 Sense and Sensibility 3

8 Lost in Austen 1 8 Lost in Austen 2 8 Lost in Austen 3

The coat worn by Fanny to cut lavender was worn by Marianne Dashwood (Kate Winslet) in ‘Sense and Sensibility’ (1995), Francesca Martin in ‘Regency House Party’ (2004), and Harriet Smith (Louise Dylan) in ‘Emma’ (2009). (I’m not actually quite sure this is the same coat.)

9 gray coat 1 9 gray coat 2 9 gray coat 3

9 Sense and Sensibility 1 9 Sense and Sensibility 2 9 Sense and Sensibility 3

9 Emma 1 9 Emma 2 9 Emma 3

The waistcoat worn by Henry Crawford to Maria’s wedding was afterwards worn by Giles Goren in ‘Supersizers Go: Regency’ (2008) and by Mr. Knightley (Johnny Lee Miller) in ‘Emma’ (2009).

10 floral waistcoat 1 10 floral waistcoat 2 10 floral waistcoat 3

EMMA 10 Emma 2 10 Emma 3

A dress worn by Mrs. Norris when discussing young Fanny’s arrival was also worn by Maggie Jacobs (Ashley Jenson) in ‘Extras: Ross Kemp’ (2005) and by Mrs. Bates (Vallerie Lilley) in ‘Emma’ (2009).

11 gray striped dress 1 11 gray striped dress 2 11 gray striped dress 3

11 Emma 1 11 Emma 2

Mary Crawford’s riding costume is also worn by an extra in ‘Poldark’ (1996), Maria Oldknow (Carice Van Houten) in ‘From Time to Time’ (2009), and Tib Norcliffe (Susan Lynch) in ‘The Secret Diaries of Miss Anne Lister’ (2010).

12 red riding habit 1 12 red riding habit 2 12 red riding habit 3

The traveling outfit Maria wears after her wedding was also worn by Mary, Third Duchess of Richmond (Carmen Du Sautoy) in ‘Aristocrats’ (1999), an extra in ‘The Golden Bowl’ (2000), an “extra” (Katherine Parkinson) in ‘Extras: Ross Kemp’ (2005), and Lady Sarah (Lyndsey Marshal) in ‘Garrow’s Law’ (2009).

ITV ARCHIVE ITV ARCHIVE 13 striped traveling costume 3

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Disclaimer: I have not seen, nor do I recommend, all of the movies mentioned in this post.

Little Particulars

James Edward Austen-Leigh wrote in his memoir of his aunt Jane Austen, “She certainly took a kind of parental interest in the beings whom she had created, and did not dismiss them from her thoughts when she had finished her last chapter. … She would, if asked, tell us many little particulars about the subsequent career of some of her people.” (Memoir of Jane Austen, Ch. 10) Fans of Jane Austen continue to be intrigued by the other side of the story and the what happened next? of her novels, provoking and encouraging the large and increasing number of Jane Austen fanfiction “with which the press now groans”1 (to use a quotation from Northanger Abbey). We are eager for more details.

Mrs. Norris 1983 Anna Massey

In his A Fine Brush on Ivory, Richard Jenkyns points out the loveless state that Mansfield Park‘s Mrs. Norris is in. “Mrs. Norris has nobody to love her, or even to care for her. We never learn her Christian name; why should it ever be wanted?”2 In general, I agree with Mr. Jenkyns’s perspectives on Mansfield Park, but Mrs. Norris joins a multitude of unnamed characters in Jane Austen’s canon — the Rev. Mr. Norris, Mrs. Grant, Dr. Grant, Mr. Price (MP); Mr. Perry, Mrs. Bates, Mrs. Goddard, Mr. Weston (E); Mr. Allen, Mrs. Allen, General Tilney, Mrs. Morland (NA); Admiral Croft, Captain Harville, Mrs. Harville (P); Colonel Forster, Colonel Fitzwilliam, Mrs. Gardiner, Lady Lucas (P&P); Colonel Brandon, Mrs. Dashwood, Mrs. Jennings (S&S); &c. — and I don’t see any reason to think that Jane Austen had some more significant reason for not giving Mrs. Norris a first name than she did in not giving one to any of these others.

Mrs. Norris 1999 Sheila Gish

Anyway, I have my own theory on Mrs. Norris’s name. I conjecture that it was Elizabeth. Children in Jane Austen’s stories were usually named after their parents and other relations. For example, Fanny Price has her mother’s name. Maria Bertram has her mother’s name. Tom Bertram is named for his father. In Emma, John and Isabella Knightley name their first son Henry after Isabella’s father, their second son John after his father, their daughter Bella must be named for her mother, George is named for his father’s brother, and baby Emma is named for her mother’s sister. Mrs. Weston’s name is Anne, and her little girl is named Anna. Jane Fairfax has her mother’s name. &c., &c.

Mrs. Price’s last two children, Charles and Betsey, were born after her reconciliation with her sisters. She already had a son Tom, so she couldn’t name another child after Sir Thomas. So, my theory is, she named Betsey after Mrs. Norris. Mrs. Norris, after all, ended up with much of “the credit of projecting and arranging so expensive a charity” (ch. 1) as bringing Fanny to Mansfield, and she was Betsey’s godmother.3

Mrs. Norris 2007 Maggie O'Neill

And if no one else agrees with this theory, “the credit of a wild imagination will at least be all my own” (NA, Ch. 30). Well, not quite my own. In So You Think You Know Jane Austen?: A Literary Quizbook, John Sutherland and Deirdre Le Faye wrote, “Mrs Norris is the godmother of Betsey (an act following the reconciliation of the sisters), which perhaps indicates that Mrs Norris’s Christian name is Elizabeth. But she has never seen the child, nor sent her any gift.”4

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1 “Let us leave it to the reviewers to abuse such effusions of fancy at their leisure, and over every new novel to talk in threadbare strains of the trash with which the press now groans.” (Northanger Abbey, Ch. 5)

2 Richard Jenkyns, A Fine Brush on Ivory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), ch. 4, p. 98.

3 “‘Now, Susan,’ cried Mrs. Price, in a complaining voice, ‘now, how can you be so cross? You are always quarrelling about that knife. … Poor Mary little thought it would be such a bone of contention when she gave it me to keep, only two hours before she died. … It was the gift of her good godmother, old Mrs. Admiral Maxwell, only six weeks before she was taken for death. … My own Betsey’ (fondling her), ‘you have not the luck of such a good godmother. Aunt Norris lives too far off to think of such little people as you.’

“Fanny had indeed nothing to convey from aunt Norris, but a message to say she hoped that her god-daughter was a good girl, and learnt her book. There had been at one moment a slight murmur in the drawing-room at Mansfield Park about sending her a prayer-book; but no second sound had been heard of such a purpose. Mrs. Norris, however, had gone home and taken down two old prayer-books of her husband with that idea; but, upon examination, the ardour of generosity went off. One was found to have too small a print for a child’s eyes, and the other to be too cumbersome for her to carry about.” (Mansfield Park, Ch. 38)

4 John Sutherland and Deirdre Le Faye, So You Think You Know Jane Austen?: A Literary Quizbook (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), page 173.