Misguided Concealment

This is sixth in a series of guest posts written by “Sophie” of A Reasonable Quantity of Butter in celebration of Mansfield Park’s bicentennial.

***

In many novels, much of the drama revolves around a concealment. These passages are especially irksome because great harm often comes from the concealment, and it would be so simple for the informed character to say something and avert the catastrophe.

Often these concealments arise from some romantic fancy. In Far From the Madding Crowd, Gabriel Oak conceals Sergeant Troy’s former relationship from Bathsheba out of a mistaken sense of obligation to Fanny Robin. In Bleak House, Lady Dedlock conceals her past from her husband, even though speaking out would completely disarm her enemy, because she fears losing her husband’s esteem. Other characters feel that it would be wrong to speak ill of someone, even when not speaking injures another person—a person who really has a right to know.

Whereas I have come to expect misguided concealments in novels such as those by Dickens and Hardy, I was surprised to meet one in Mansfield Park.1 Happily, it has no effect on the outcome of the story, but it is still there!

Fanny Price keeps important information from Edmund. As Edmund’s only confidant, she knows that, although he is deeply in love with Mary Crawford, several things would keep him from proposing to her: Mary’s love of money, love of prestige, and contempt for Edmund’s profession. In fact, these did at one point decide Edmund against marrying her. After his ordination, he purposely stayed away from Mansfield to avoid seeing Mary, intending to return only after she left.

Fanny is uncertain as to how much Mary’s fondness for Edmund may have overcome her worldly notions, and she must, in any case, leave Edmund to his own judgment. What good would it do to convey doubts and suspicions to a mind accustomed to excusing them? And what right had she to do so—would it not be only indulging her own envy?

But while in Portsmouth, Fanny receives confirmation of her fears in writing from Mary.2 There, in Mary’s own handwriting, is evidence that she loves money and position in society to the point of wishing Edmund’s brother dead, and looks forward to Edmund’s profession being concealed as a past disgrace!

Despite any attending awkwardness, I think Fanny should have forwarded Mary’s letter to Edmund. He had a right to know.

***

1There is a misguided concealment in Emma, which is crucial to the plot, but Austen handles it much differently than the other authors mentioned. Also, in Pride and Prejudice, Jane and Elizabeth choose not to publish Wickham’s true character because he is leaving soon.

2“Poor young man! If he is to die, there will be two poor young men less in the world; and with a fearless face and bold voice would I say to any one, that wealth and consequence could fall into no hands more deserving of them. It was a foolish precipitation last Christmas [Edmund’s ordination], but the evil of a few days may be blotted out in part. Varnish and gilding hide many stains. It will be but the loss of the Esquire after his name. With real affection, Fanny, like mine, more might be overlooked.”—Mansfield Park, Chapter XLV

Fanny Was Right

This is third in a series of guest posts written by “Sophie” of A Reasonable Quantity of Butter in celebration of Mansfield Park’s bicentennial.

***

“[Sir Thomas’s] displeasure against herself she trusted . . . would now be done away. She should be justified. Mr. Crawford would have fully acquitted her conduct in refusing him”1

To Sir Thomas, Henry’s and Maria’s elopement vindicated Fanny’s refusal. In this, Sir Thomas’s judgment was shallow. Fanny did not reject Henry because she foresaw scandal and disgrace. Henry did not need to be wicked enough to run off with someone else’s wife in order to be a bad choice for Fanny. Her refusal was formed on standards which Sir Thomas did not share and events of which he was not aware. These standards needed no later proof to validate them.

26th copyAt the time of Henry’s proposal, Fanny’s knowledge of him was overwhelmingly bad. At almost every meeting, Henry flirted and trifled with an engaged woman—a circumstance which Sir Thomas never learned of. Henry also spoke flippantly about matters which should have commanded his respect. When Fanny said, “I cannot approve his character. . . . I am persuaded that he does not think, as he ought, on serious subjects”2 she had every reason to think so. It would have been foolish to entrust herself, and any children she might have, to such a man, no matter how rich or charming he was.

There was also the fact that Fanny did not love Henry. Among the characters, Sir Thomas alone would disagree that it is wrong to marry someone you do not love. When Edmund tells Fanny, “You did not love him; nothing could have justified your accepting him”3, he is only saying what most people would believe. Even worldly-minded Mary and Henry censure any woman who, “would ever give her hand without her heart.”4 Marrying without love is a wrong not only against yourself, but also against the one you marry.5 To marry Henry when she was in love with another would have been doing him a double wrong.6

Not only did Fanny not love Henry, she did not even like him. His society was irksome to her—both as a suitor and as a friend.“His attentions were always—what I did not like”7 & “his spirits often oppress me”.8 This is the only reason for rejecting Henry that Fanny felt comfortable telling her uncle. But Sir Thomas did not understand the nature of liking: “There is something in this which my comprehension does not reach.”9,10

Fanny’s rejection of Henry is not evidence that she was a prig or a prophet. Rather, it shows that she had common sense and common justice. No matter how imperfect her knowledge of him was, or how he may have changed afterward, Fanny was right to refuse Henry.

***

1Mansfield Park, ch. 47

2Ibid., ch. 35

3Ibid., ch. 35

4Ibid., ch. 5

5Austen censures Rushworth for marrying a woman who he knows doesn’t love him:

“[Maria] had despised him, and loved another; and he had been very much aware that it was so. The indignities of stupidity, and the disappointments of selfish passion, can excite little pity. His punishment followed his conduct,” ch. 48

6Austen’s characters do not marry out of a silly sense of duty, especially when their hearts are otherwise engaged (not like Laura Fairly in The Woman in White).

7Mansfield Park, ch. 32

8Ibid., ch. 35

9His speech continues, “Here is a young man wishing to pay his addresses to you, with everything to recommend him: not merely situation in life, fortune, and character, but with more than common agreeableness, with address and conversation pleasing to everybody. And he is not an acquaintance of to-day; you have now known him some time.”, ch. 32

10I am reminded of Aunt Stanbury in He Knew He Was Right: “I never heard of such a thing in my life. Not love him! And why shouldn’t you love him? He’s a gentleman. Everybody respects him. He’ll have plenty to make you comfortable all your life!”

Reasons I like Fanny Price

“Whose adorning let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel; But let it be the hidden man of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price.” — I Peter 3:3-4

Though Jane Austen’s Fanny Price often gets a bad rap, she has her admirers. I like Fanny for many reasons. She is opinionated, with a good head on her shoulders. However, she is also gentle, kind, and considerate, and has the grace to keep her opinions to herself unless there is an appropriate occasion to air them. She is self-controlled.

%22Lilac%22 Edmund Blair Leighton 1901Not only is Fanny opinionated, she has correct opinions. She notices what is going on between Henry Crawford and the Miss Bertrams and sees clearly where almost no one else around her does. She later tells Miss Crawford, “I was quiet, but I was not blind.” She tells her, “I cannot think well of a man who sports with any woman’s feelings” (Ch. 36). She sees and disapproves of Miss Crawford’s flippancy. She condemns Edmund’s weakness in joining the play. When Henry Crawford tries to reminisce with her about the play, she firmly tells him her mind on the subject. She is no pushover — she stands firm despite immense pressure over the play business and Henry Crawford’s proposals. Still, she is respectful of others. She listens to Edmund and others. She is willing to learn. But when she discerns that anyone (including Edmund) is wrong, she sticks with her own convictions.

Fanny is smart. She likes to read — travels, poetry, history, &c. — and discuss and quote what she reads. She is very affectionate. She loves her brother William deeply. She respects her sister Susan and hopes to be of use to her, endeavoring to “exercise for her advantage the juster notions of what was due to everybody, and what would be wisest for herself, which her own more favoured education had fixed in her” (Ch. 40). And, of course, she loves Edmund for all of his kindnesses to her. She is grateful. Even in a situation where she could easily have not seen much to be grateful for, instead of becoming bitter, she is thankful for the kindnesses that she is shown and for the generosity shown to her family. Even despite the fact that he tries to use his service to William to manipulate Fanny, she is still grateful to Mr. Crawford for William’s promotion — “he had been conferring an obligation, which no want of delicacy on his part could make a trifle to her” (Ch. 31). She is trustworthy. Henry Crawford recognizes in her “a steadiness and regularity of conduct, such a high notion of honour, and such an observance of decorum as might warrant any man in the fullest dependence on her faith and integrity” (Ch. 30). “I could so wholly and absolutely confide in her,” he tells his sister.

She is industrious. Even thought she is not strong, Fanny stays busy and works hard. She gardens and runs errands, sometimes walking beyond her strength. She is a companion to her lazy aunt, reading to her and helping her with her “work”. She is very patient. She is charitable, working to help the poor. She sews. During the play, she is kept busy sewing costumes and helping others learn their lines. She spends time studying. She regularly corresponds with her brother William. She takes what exercise she can (mostly horseback riding) as regularly as she can.

I don’t think Fanny is perfect. She is too shy. She herself recognizes that where her sister Susan tries to help, she would have just gone and cried. Despite Susan’s faults of manner, she “was only acting on the same truths, and pursuing the same system, which [Fanny's] own judgment acknowledged, but which her more supine and yielding temper would have shrunk from asserting” (Ch. 40). Fanny needed more confidence. (On the other hand, she is so meek that sometimes she appears even more shy than she really is.) She is, perhaps, too passive.

Despite her faults, however, Fanny Price is a young woman of quiet strength. She is gentle, strong, intelligent, graceful, and refined — a type of woman that I greatly admire.

_________________________

Painting “Lilac” by Edmund Blair Leighton (1852-1922).

Fairly Caught

“I am quite determined to marry Fanny Price. … I am fairly caught. You know with what idle designs I began; but this is the end of them. I have, I flatter myself, made no inconsiderable progress in her affections; but my own are entirely fixed.” (Mansfield Park, by Jane Austen, Ch. XXX)

Many people think that it is unnatural for Henry Crawford to fall in love with Fanny Price. I find Fanny to be a very lovable girl, so it is not a stretch for me to think of a charming man falling in love with her. Furthermore, I think that it was natural under the circumstances for Henry to fall in love with her, and I shall attempt to explain why.

Fanny is not as immediately attractive as others of Jane Austen’s heroines, but, when you get to know her, she has a quiet charm of her own. Henry only intended to flirt with “Returning to her seat to finish a note” Chap XXX H. M. BrockFanny, not to fall in love with her. His attraction was simply boredom (the Bertram sisters weren’t around anymore for him to flirt with) and the desire to conquer. He tells his sister, “Her looks say, ‘I will not like you, I am determined not to like you’; and I say she shall.” (Ch. XXIV). In the process of wooing her, however, he gets to know her better and falls in love with her. He discovers her sweetness, her intelligence, her high sense of honor — and no one has denied that she is a pretty girl. He feels that he can depend on her “faith and integrity”. “Her temper he had good reason to depend on and to praise. He had often seen it tried. … Her affections were evidently strong. To see her with her brother! What could more delightfully prove that the warmth of her heart was equal to its gentleness? What could be more encouraging to a man who had her love in view?” (Ch. XXX).

Fanny’s attractions increased—increased twofold; for the sensibility which beautified her complexion and illumined her countenance was an attraction in itself. He was no longer in doubt of the capabilities of her heart. She had feeling, genuine feeling. It would be something to be loved by such a girl, to excite the first ardours of her young unsophisticated mind! She interested him more than he had foreseen. A fortnight was not enough. His stay became indefinite. (Ch. XXIV)

Unlike the other girls Henry has known, who were all ready to flirt with him, he must earn Fanny’s respect and regard. Henry expressed his feelings toward marriage earlier in the novel, “I am of a cautious temper, and unwilling to risk my happiness in a hurry.” He is willing to flirt with any attractive girl, but unwilling to commit his happiness to her. Fanny is different. “I could so wholly and absolutely confide in her,” said he; “and that is what I want.” (Ch. XXX). Fanny’s resistance presents him with a challenge, which stimulates him, making “her affection appear of greater consequence because it was withheld, and determined him to have the glory, as well as the felicity, of forcing her to love him” (Ch. XXXIII).

Love such as his, in a man like himself, must with perseverance secure a return, and at no great distance; and he had so much delight in the idea of obliging her to love him in a very short time, that her not loving him now was scarcely regretted. A little difficulty to be overcome was no evil to Henry Crawford. He rather derived spirits from it. He had been apt to gain hearts too easily. His situation was new and animating. (Ch. XXXIII)

I think also that Henry liked the idea of marrying a “damsel in distress”, so to speak, — of “rescuing” her and raising her up. He tells his sister, “[Maria and Julia Bertram] will now “He….left them only at the door” Chap XLI H. M. Brocksee their cousin treated as she ought to be, and I wish they may be heartily ashamed of their own abominable neglect and unkindness. … Yes, Mary, my Fanny will feel a difference indeed: a daily, hourly difference, in the behaviour of every being who approaches her; and it will be the completion of my happiness to know that I am the doer of it, that I am the person to give the consequence so justly her due. Now she is dependent, helpless, friendless, neglected, forgotten. … What can Sir Thomas and Edmund together do, what do they do for her happiness, comfort, honour, and dignity in the world, to what I shall do?” (Ch. XXX, bold emphasis mine)

I think that Fanny is not the kind of woman that Henry would have imagined marrying, or even as likely to attract him, but, once he got to know her better, he could see her charm and goodness. Probably if the Bertram sisters had not left, he would never have noticed Fanny. His initial attraction to Fanny can be expressed in his words, “Why did she draw back and look so grave at me? I could hardly get her to speak. I never was so long in company with a girl in my life, trying to entertain her, and succeed so ill! Never met with a girl who looked so grave on me! I must try to get the better of this.” (Ch. XXIV). He was used to gaining hearts too easily. Her attraction was simply that she did not care for him. So, Henry set about a flirtation with her, and then fell in love.

In his book A Fine Brush on Ivory, Richard Jenkyns puts it like this:

[I]tis perhaps worth noting that both the men in Fanny’s life, Henry and Edmund, take quite a while to see [Fanny] as an object of desire. … Fanny Price takes some getting to know. For what it is worth, my own experience has been that the longer one lives with Mansfield Park, the more lovable she becomes. …

Some critics have found it hard to believe that a lively, worldly man like Henry Crawford could ever have fallen for a good little mouse like Fanny, but on the contrary, he is exactly the type of man who marries his secretary. It is significant that he is said to be plain: he needs to prove to himself his power of conquest. Henry is vain: he wants power and he wants admiration. He knows that Fanny is pretty and gentle, but he also comes to realize that she is passionate: he has seen this from the warmth and strength of her love for her brother. … But he also wants adoration. His sister sees it at once: ‘I approve your choice from my soul, and foresee your happiness as heartily as I wish and desire it. You will have a sweet little wife; all gratitude and devotion.’ … [G]enuine love and affection may be inextricably bound up with a gentle vanity and the gratification of self-esteem. … And the irony in Henry Crawford’s case is that he has misread: Fanny, who is a great deal meeker than Catherine [Morland of Northanger Abbey], is not so simple and artless: she is a tough, severe judge.1

If Henry had met Fanny in London, I doubt he would ever have noticed her. Even in Mansfield, he overlooks her until Maria and Julia are gone, and she is the only young woman left for him to notice. (As his sister said, “The truth is, that she was the only girl in company for you to notice, and you must have a somebody.” — Ch. XXIV) But, under the circumstances, he does notice her. He finds her to be pretty, gentle, passionate, trustworthy, and sweet. The idea of gaining her affections and “rescuing” her, so to speak, attracts him. So, was it natural for Henry to truly fall in love with Fanny? I think so.

_______________________________

1 A Fine Brush on Ivory, by Richard Jenkyns (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 109, 135-136).

Illustrations: “Returning to her seat to finish a note” (Chap XXX) and “He….left them only at the door” (Chap XLI), by H.M. Brock.

Brother and Sister

“You have shewn that you can dance, and you know we are not really so much brother and sister as to make it at all improper.”

“Brother and sister! no, indeed.”

— from Emma, by Jane Austen, Volume III, Chapter II.

When Mrs. Norris comes up with the idea to take her niece, young Fanny Price, in, Sir Thomas debates and hesitates. “He thought of his own four children, of his two sons, of cousins in love, etc.;—but no sooner had he deliberately begun to state his objections, than Mrs. Norris interrupted him with a reply to them all” (Mansfield Park, by Jane Austen, Chapter I).

“You are thinking of your sons—but do not you know that, of all things upon earth, that is the least likely to happen, brought up as they would be, always together like brothers and sisters? It is morally impossible. I never knew an instance of it. It is, in fact, the only sure way of providing against the connexion. Suppose her a pretty girl, and seen by Tom or Edmund for the first time seven years hence, and I dare say there would be mischief. The very idea of her having been suffered to grow up at a distance from us all in poverty and neglect, would be enough to make either of the dear, sweet-tempered boys in love with her. But breed her up with them from this time, and suppose her even to have the beauty of an angel, and she will never be more to either than a sister.” (Ch. I)

Sir Thomas agrees to the plan, stressing, however, that it ought not to be “lightly engaged in”. When Fanny arrives, Mrs. Norris undertakes “to make her remember that she is not a Miss Bertram” and that “they cannot be equals”. So well does she accomplish this, that very few in the family ever forget that Fanny is the poor relation — including Fanny herself. “There was no positive ill-nature in Maria or Julia; and though Fanny was often mortified by their treatment of her, she thought too lowly of her own claims to feel injured by it.” (Ch. II).

She is obviously considered a dependent. Mrs. Norris says of her publicly, “I shall think her a very obstinate, ungrateful girl, if she does not do what her aunt and cousins wish her—very ungrateful, indeed, considering who and what she is.” (Ch. XV). On another occasion, Mrs. Norris tells Fanny, “The nonsense and folly of people’s stepping out of their rank and trying to appear above themselves, makes me think it right to give you a hint, Fanny, now that you are going into company without any of us; and I do beseech and entreat you not to be putting yourself forward, and talking and giving your opinion as if you were one of your cousins—as if you were dear Mrs. Rushworth or Julia. That will never do, believe me. Remember, wherever you are, you must be the lowest and last” (Ch. XXIII). That even strangers see that she is not considered one of the family, is shown by what Mr. Crawford says of her, “Now she is dependent, helpless, friendless, neglected, forgotten.” (Ch. XXX).

As Fanny is not brought up as a sister to her cousins, all of Mrs. Norris’s assurances come to naught. Fanny’s having been suffered to grow up under mistreatment and neglect within his own family, was enough to make at least one of the “dear, sweet-tempered boys” care for her. In the end, Sir Thomas’s son Edmund falls in love with her.

“With such a regard for her, indeed, as his had long been, a regard founded on the most endearing claims of innocence and helplessness, and completed by every recommendation of growing worth, what could be more natural than the change? Loving, guiding, protecting her, as he had been doing ever since her being ten years old, her mind in so great a degree formed by his care, and her comfort depending on his kindness, an object to him of such close and peculiar interest, dearer by all his own importance with her than any one else at Mansfield, what was there now to add, but that he should learn to prefer soft light eyes to sparkling dark ones.” (Ch. XLVIII)

By this time, however, Sir Thomas is “sick of ambitious and mercenary connexions, prizing more and more the sterling good of principle and temper, and chiefly anxious to bind by the strongest securities all that remained to him of domestic felicity” (Ch. XLVIII). He joyfully consents to the marriage of his son and Fanny.

“With so much true merit and true love, and no want of fortune and friends, the happiness of the married cousins must appear as secure as earthly happiness can be. Equally formed for domestic life, and attached to country pleasures, their home was the home of affection and comfort” (Ch. XLVIII).

Fanny Hall of Fame: Part III

Fanny Price’s name used to be quite common. According to Grace Hamlin in her book The Penguin Classic Baby Name Book, the name “was a favorite name among the Victorians, and appears often enough in literature to suggest that it was a neutral, nondescript name for a well-educated woman.” 1 Jane Austen was related to several people with the name Fanny (and also Francis). It is a fairly common name in literature, and quite a few historical people have borne the name. For my own amusement (and inspired by this list on Enchanted Serenity), I have collected some information about various of these people here. Because there are so many of them, I have divided them into separate posts. So, without further ado, here is part III of my Fanny Hall of Fame:

Historical persons bearing the name Fanny, or Frances

Frances (Fanny) Brawne – (August 9, 1800 – December 4, 1865) the love interest of the poet John Keats (October 31, 1795 – February 23, 1821). Fanny and Keats first met in October 1818 and became officially engaged in October 1819. Their relationship was a tempestuous one, but some of Keats’s best poetry was written in 1819, after he met Fanny Brawne, including “The Eve of St. Agnes”, “La Belle Dame Sans Merci”, “Lamia”, and his six great odes, “Ode to Psyche”, “Ode on a Grecian Urn”, “Ode on Indolence”, “Ode on Melancholy”, “Ode to a Nightingale”, and “To Autumn”.  Fanny’s engagement to John Keats was ended by his death of tuberculosis in February 1821. The last poem that Keats ever wrote was an ode, “To Fanny”. Here is the second stanza:

Ah! dearest love, sweet home of all my fears, 
     And hopes, and joys, and panting miseries,—
To-night, if I may guess, thy beauty wears 
          A smile of such delight, 
          As brilliant and as bright, 
     As when with ravished, aching, vassal eyes, 
          Lost in soft amaze, 
          I gaze, I gaze!

In his book Darkling I Listen: The Last Days and Death of John Keats, John Evangelist Walsh (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999) notes that, even in the midst of writing serious poetry, “Keats frequently interrupted himself to rhapsodize about Fanny in verse”2 — writing, among other things, his sonnet “Bright Star”. Walsh states that, besides the “Ode to Fanny”, “it is impossible to date precisely any of the verse Keats wrote to and about Fanny. … The truth is, everything Keats wrote after meeting Fanny can without too much strain be tied to his feelings for her, at least in part, …”3

John Keats’s mother was also named Frances, and Keats had a sister Frances, whom Fanny Brawne corresponded with during the time that Keats was dying in Rome and after his death. After Keats’s death, Fanny Brawne went into mourning. She eventually married Louis Lindon on June 15, 1833. Some accounts state that Fanny wore a widow’s cap and mourning and wandered the Heath late into the night after Keats’s death, but these are probably not reliable. It is also unlikely that, as has been said by some, that she wore the ring that Keats gave her the rest of her life. She did keep the ring, but, as she always concealed her relationship with him from her husband, she probably would not have worn it openly. John Keats was not the only person in Fanny’s life to die of consumption, or tuberculosis. Fanny’s father died of the disease in 1810, before she ever met the poet, and, in 1828, several years after Keats’s death, Fanny’s brother Samuel died of the same disease. In Keats’s family, his mother and his brother Tom both died of consumption — his mother in 1810 (only slightly before Fanny’s father died) and his brother in 1818. The love story of John Keats and Fanny Brawne was made into a film, Bright Star (2009), with Abbie Cornish as Fanny Brawne.

Fanny Brawne on Wikipedia and English History. ‘Bright Star’ (the movie) on Wikipedia. John Keats on Wikipedia.

Frances (Fanny) Burney – (June 13, 1752 – January 6, 1840) an English novelist. She wrote the novels Evelina, Cecilia, Camilla, and The Wanderer. Cecilia and Camilla, along with Maria Edgeworth’s novel Belinda, are mentioned in Jane Austen’s famous defense of the novel.

Yes, novels; for I will not adopt that ungenerous and impolitic custom so common with novel-writers, of degrading by their contemptuous censure the very performances, to the number of which they are themselves adding—joining with their greatest enemies in bestowing the harshest epithets on such works, and scarcely ever permitting them to be read by their own heroine, who, if she accidentally take up a novel, is sure to turn over its insipid pages with disgust. Alas! If the heroine of one novel be not patronized by the heroine of another, from whom can she expect protection and regard? I cannot approve of it. Let us leave it to the reviewers to abuse such effusions of fancy at their leisure, and over every new novel to talk in threadbare strains of the trash with which the press now groans. Let us not desert one another; we are an injured body. Although our productions have afforded more extensive and unaffected pleasure than those of any other literary corporation in the world, no species of composition has been so much decried. From pride, ignorance, or fashion, our foes are almost as many as our readers. And while the abilities of the nine-hundredth abridger of the History of England, or of the man who collects and publishes in a volume some dozen lines of Milton, Pope, and Prior, with a paper from the Spectator, and a chapter from Sterne, are eulogized by a thousand pens—there seems almost a general wish of decrying the capacity and undervaluing the labour of the novelist, and of slighting the performances which have only genius, wit, and taste to recommend them. “I am no novel-reader—I seldom look into novels—Do not imagine that I often read novels—It is really very well for a novel.” Such is the common cant. “And what are you reading, Miss—?” “Oh! It is only a novel!” replies the young lady, while she lays down her book with affected indifference, or momentary shame. “It is only Cecilia, or Camilla, or Belinda”; or, in short, only some work in which the greatest powers of the mind are displayed, in which the most thorough knowledge of human nature, the happiest delineation of its varieties, the liveliest effusions of wit and humour, are conveyed to the world in the best-chosen language. (Northanger Abbey, Chapter V).

Evelina, Fanny Burney’s first novel, was a success, and Dr. Johnson, among others, praised it. It is thought that the title for Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice may have been taken from a passage in Fanny Burney’s second novel, Cecilia:

“The whole of this unfortunate business,” said Dr Lyster, “has been the result of PRIDE and PREJUDICE. Your uncle, the Dean, began it, by his arbitrary will, as if an ordinance of his own could arrest the course of nature! and as if he had power to keep alive, by the loan of a name, a family in the male branch already extinct. Your father, Mr Mortimer, continued it with the same self-partiality, preferring the wretched gratification of tickling his ear with a favourite sound, to the solid happiness of his son with a rich and deserving wife. Yet this, however, remember; if to PRIDE and PREJUDICE you owe your miseries, so wonderfully is good and evil balanced, that to PRIDE and PREJUDICE you will also owe their termination: for all that I could say to Mr Delvile, either of reasoning or entreaty,—and I said all I could suggest, and I suggested all a man need wish to hear,—was totally thrown away, till I pointed out to him his own disgrace, in having a daughter-in-law immured in these mean lodgings! (Book X, Chapter X).

In chapter 20 of Persuasion, Anne Elliot compares herself, or, rather, does not compare herself with “the inimitable Miss Larolles”, characters from Cecilia. Camilla is mentioned in Jane Austen’s unfinished Sanditon, and Fanny Burney’s novels are occasionally mentioned in Jane Austen’s letters. Fanny Burney also wrote plays and a couple of works of non-fiction, including Memoirs of Doctor Burney, a memoir of her father.

Fanny Burney on Wikipedia and Project Gutenberg. Literary Allusions in Jane Austen’s writings.

Frances Cleveland (July 21, 1864 – October 29, 1947) – the wife of Grover Cleveland (the only president of the United States to serve two non-consecutive terms). She was the youngest first lady (she was 21 when she married Grover Cleveland on June 2, 1886) and also the first to be married in the White House. Grover Cleveland was 27 years older than Frances, the second largest age gap of any Presidential couple. She also became the first presidential widow (her husband died in 1908) to remarry when she married Thomas J. Preston, Jr. on February 10, 1913. Frances Clara Folsom was born in Buffalo, New York. Her name was originally Frank, but she later changed it to Frances. She had five children by her first husband: Ruth, Esther, Marion, Richard Folsom, and Francis Grover. Like her husband, Mrs. Cleveland was opposed to women’s suffrage. She, rather, supported “an exalted role for women in the home”.4

Frances Cleveland on Wikipedia.

Fanny Crosby (March 24, 1820 – February 12, 1915) – a hymnwriter. Frances Jane Crosby was born in New York. While still an infant, she developed inflammation of the eyes due to an illness. Owing to a mistaken treatment, she became blind. Fanny became a student at the New York Institute for the Blind, and later became a teacher there. “In 1843, she joined a group of lobbyists in Washington, D.C. arguing for support of education for the blind.”5 She married fellow teacher Alexander van Alstyne, who was also blind, in 1858. They had one daughter, also named Frances, who died in infancy. Fanny Crosby wrote various poetry from the age of eight years old, but she is mostly remembered for her hymns, of which she wrote over 8,000 under a variety of pseudonyms. Some of her best known hymns are ‘All the Way My Savior Lead Me’, ‘Blessed Assurance’, ‘Christ, the Lord, Is Risen Today’, ‘He Hideth My Soul’, ‘My Savior First of All’, ‘Praise Him, Praise Him’, ‘Redeemed, How I Love to Proclaim It!’, ‘Rescue the Perishing’, and ‘To God Be the Glory’.

There are other hymnwriters with the name Fanny: Frances Eugenia Bolton (also known as Fannie Bolton—1859-1926—she wrote ‘Not I, but Christ’ and others), Frances Elizabeth Cox (1812-1897—she wrote ‘Jesus Lives!’), Fannie Chadwick (late 19th century—she wrote ‘Christian Soldier, Wake’ and others), Frances Ridley Havergal (1836-1879—she wrote ‘Like a River Glorious’, ‘Take My Life and Let It Be’, ‘Who Is on the Lord’s Side?’, and many others), Jane Francesca Elgee Wilde (Lady Wilde—1821-1896—she translated ‘Jesus, Refuge of the Weary’), and many others.

Fanny Crosby on Wikipedia and Hymntime.

Fanny Kemble (November 27, 1809 – January 15, 1893) – a British actess and author. Her full name was Frances Anne Kemble. She was the daughter of actor Charles Kemble. She made her first appearance on stage on October 26, 1829 as Juliet. Beginning in 1832, she travelled with her father in the United States. There she met Pierce Butler. She married him in 1834. After he inherited plantations from his grandfather, he and Fanny went there in 1838-39. Fanny was shocked by the treatment of the slaves. Eventually, largely due to increasing tension over the slavery issue, Fanny left her husband, returning to the theatre. They were divorced in 1849. Pierce Butler was given custody of his two daughters, Sarah and Frances, but Fanny was allowed to spend two months a year with them and received $1,500 a year in alimony. Neither Pierce nor Fanny remarried. Fanny published several works of anti-slaverly literature, including Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838-1839. She also published some plays and poetry. Fanny had much success giving Shakespearian readings in the United States. Her family was divided on the issue of the War for Southern Independence (1861-1865). Fanny and her daughter Sarah were pro-North, while Pierce and her daughter Frances were pro-South. In 1877, Fanny returned permantly to England. There she became a friend of author Henry James. Fanny died in London.

Fanny Kemble on Wikipedia, Project Gutenberg, Friends of Jane, PBS, and Philadelphia Reflections.

Fanny Cäcilie Mendelssohn (November 14, 1805 – May 14, 1847) – a German pianist and composer. She was named after her aunt Fanny von Arnstein, a music lover and patroness of a well-known salon. Fanny Mendelssohn was the sister of composer Felix Mendelssohn. Fanny married the painter Wilhelm Hensel in 1829. They had one child, Sebastian Ludwig Felix Hensel. Hensel was supportive of her composing, but was himself completely unmusical. Fanny died of a stroke. Her brother Felix composed his String Quartet No. 6 in F minor in her memory, two months before his death (he died only six months after Fanny). Fanny composed 466 pieces of music, some of which were originally published under Felix’s name. One of her songs, “Italien” (Italy), was said to be a favorite of Queen Victoria’s — although the queen thought that it was composed by Felix.

On Wikipedia: Fanny Mendelssohn, Fanny von Arnstein, Felix Mendelssohn, William Hensel, String Quartet No. 6, the Mendelssohn family, and a List of compositions by Fanny Mendelssohn. Fanny (Mendelssohn) Hensel on the International Music Score Library Project. A website devoted to Fanny Hensel and an encyclopedia entry on her.

Frances Trollope (March 10, 1780 – October 6, 1863) – an English novelist and mother of novelist Anthony Trollope (author of the well-known Chronicles of Barsetshire, the Palliser novels, and The Way We Live Now). She was born Frances Milton in Stapleton, Bristol. In 1809 she married Thomas Anthony Trollope. Her eldest son, Thomas Adolphus Trollope, was also an author, writing fiction, history, and travel books. In 1827, she and her family moved to an “utopian community” in America founded by Fanny Wright. The community failed, and the Trollopes moved to Cincinnati, Ohio. They eventually returned to England, where, in 1832, Frances Trollope published Domestic Manners of the Americans, an unflattering view of her travels in America. She went on to write several other travel books. She also published several novels of social protest, Michael Armstrong: Factory Boy (the first industrial novel to be published in Britain), Jonathan Jefferson Whitlaw (the first anti-slavery novel), and The Vicar of Wrexhill (a novel dealing with corruption in the church). “Possibly her greatest work is the Widow Barnaby trilogy”.6 The title character of the first novel, The Widow Barnaby, according to William Rose Benét’s The Reader’s Encyclopedia, “is a vulgar, pretentious husband-hunter, wholly without principle. She marries a degenerate cleryman in the sequel”.7 In all, Frances Trollope wrote over 100 volumes. She died in Florence, Italy.

On Wikipedia: Frances Trollope, Anthony Trollope, and Fanny Wright. Frances Trollope on Project Gutenberg and information on her novel Michael Armstrong.

_______________________________

Footnotes:

1 Grace Hamlin, The Penguin Classic Baby Name Book: 2,000 Names from the World’s Great Literature (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd., 2001), pp. 312-13.

2 John Evangelist Walsh, Darkling I Listen: The Last Days and Death of John Keats (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999), Ch. 2, p. 34.

3 Ibid., Notes and Sources, pp. 170-71.

4 Frank. Suny Press, n.d. <http://www.sunypress.edu/p-4835-frank.aspx&gt;

5 Fanny Crosby. Wikipedia, 8 August 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fanny_Crosby&gt;

6 Frances Trollope. Wikipedia, 23 August 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frances_Trollope&gt;

7 William Rose Benét, The Reader’s Encyclopedia (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1969), pp. 1027, 1089.

Fanny Hall of Fame: Part II

Fanny Price’s name used to be quite common. According to Grace Hamlin in her book The Penguin Classic Baby Name Book, the name “was a favorite name among the Victorians, and appears often enough in literature to suggest that it was a neutral, nondescript name for a well-educated woman.” 1 Jane Austen was related to several people with the name Fanny (and also Francis). It is a fairly common name in literature, and quite a few historical people have borne the name. For my own amusement (and inspired by this list on Enchanted Serenity), I have collected some information about various of these people here. Because there are so many of them, I have divided them into separate posts. So, without further ado, here is part II of my Fanny Hall of Fame:

Fictional characters bearing the name Fanny

Fanny PriceMansfield Park, by Jane Austen. Fanny Price is the heroine of Mansfield Park. She is the eldest daughter of Lieutenant and Mrs. Price and the niece of Lady Bertram and Mrs. Norris. When she is ten years old she is moved to Mansfield Park, the home of her uncle, Sir Thomas, where she grows up. She has “good sense, and a sweet temper, and … a grateful heart.” She is often ill-used, but, though mortified, thinks “too lowly of her own claims to feel injured by it.” She is timid, with warm affections, and a patient temper. She has “beauty of face and figure, … graces of manner and goodness of heart,” as well as “gentleness, modesty, and sweetness” of character. “Then, her understanding was beyond every suspicion, quick and clear; and her manners were the mirror of her own modest and elegant mind,” She is “firm as a rock” in the “excellence of her principles.” She is courted by Henry Crawford, but is in love with her cousin Edmund, the only one of the Bertrams who takes the trouble to be actively kind to her.

(Mansfield Park on Project Gutenberg; In the 1983 miniseries Mansfield Park, Fanny is played by Sylvestra Le Touzel; Mansfield Park (1999) – Frances O’Connor; Mansfield Park (2007) – Billie Piper)

Frances PriceMansfield Park, by Jane Austen. Formerly Miss Frances Ward, she is the youngest of the three Ward sisters. Miss Frances married “to disoblige her family, and by fixing on a lieutenant of marines, without education, fortune, or connexions, did it very thoroughly”. A rupture occurs between the sisters as a consequence of this marriage. Later, however, the sisters are reconciled, and the Bertrams take in Mrs. Price’s eldest daughter, Fanny. For the next eight years, young Fanny sees nothing of her family, except her brother William. At the end of that time, however, she returns for a visit, but is disappointed in her mother. “Her days were spent in a kind of slow bustle; all was busy without getting on, always behindhand and lamenting it, without altering her ways.” Her favorite child is her eldest son: “William was her pride; Betsey her darling; and John, Richard, Sam, Tom, and Charles occupied all the rest of her maternal solicitude.” “Her daughters never had been much to her,” except Betsey. “To her she was most injudiciously indulgent.” She is “a partial, ill-judging parent, a dawdle, a slattern, who neither taught nor restrained her children, whose house was the scene of mismanagement and discomfort from beginning to end, and who had no talent, no conversation”.

(Mansfield Park on Project Gutenberg; In the 1983 miniseries Mansfield Park, Mrs. Price is played by Alison Fiske; Mansfield Park (1999) – Lindsay Duncan; she is not portrayed in the 2007 version of Mansfield Park.)

Fanny DashwoodSense and Sensibility, by Jane Austen. Fanny Dashwood is the sister-in-law of Elinor, Marianne, and Margaret Dashwood (she is their half-brother’s wife). She is not liked by them. In fact, when a difference is pointed out between Fanny and her brother Edward, Marianne exclaims, “It is enough … to say that he is unlike Fanny is enough. It implies everything amiable. I love him already.” Although her husband promised his father on his death-bed to help care for his step-mother and sisters who will have very little money after his death, Fanny persuades him that his father had “no idea of your giving them any money at all”, and, in fact, that “they will be much more able to give you something.” She is narrow-minded and selfish. She does her best to separate her brother from Elinor, whom he has fallen in love with, and does her best to always slight her sisters-in-law.

(Sense and Sensibility is on Project Gutenberg here and here; In the 1971 miniseries, Fanny Dashwood is played by Kay Gallie; in 1981 – Amanda Boxer; in 1995 – Harriet Walter; in 2008 – Claire Skinner.)

Fanny [?] – Sense and Sensibility, by Jane Austen. Colonel Brandon has a cousin named Fanny.

While they were at breakfast the letters were brought in. Among the rest there was one for Colonel Brandon;—he took it, looked at the direction, changed colour, and immediately left the room. … In about five minutes he returned.

“No bad news, Colonel, I hope;” said Mrs. Jennings, as soon as he entered the room.

“None at all, ma’am, I thank you.”

“Was it from Avignon? I hope it is not to say that your sister is worse.”

“No, ma’am. It came from town, and is merely a letter of business.”

“But how came the hand to discompose you so much, if it was only a letter of business? Come, come, this won’t do, Colonel; so let us hear the truth of it.”

“My dear madam,” said Lady Middleton, “recollect what you are saying.”

“Perhaps it is to tell you that your cousin Fanny is married?” said Mrs. Jennings, without attending to her daughter’s reproof.

“No, indeed, it is not.” (Chapter XIII).

(Sense and Sensibility is on Project Gutenberg here and here.)

Fanny HarvillePersuasion, by Jane Austen. In Persuasion, Fanny is the sister of Captain Wentworth’s friend, Captain Harville. She was engaged to Captain Benwick, but dies while he is at sea. She is described as “a very superior creature”. Captain Benwick eventually recovers from his loss and becomes engaged to Louisa Musgrove, much to Captain Wentworth’s surprise, who thinks that “A man does not recover from such a devotion of the heart to such a woman. He ought not; he does not.” Captain Harville is also surprised. He has the charge of getting a portrait of Captain Benwick that was drawn for Fanny, properly set for Louisa. “Poor Fanny! she would not have forgotten him so soon! … It was not in her nature. She doted on him.”

(Persuasion on Project Gutenberg.)

Fanny NoyceSanditon, by Jane Austen. Mr. Parker of Sanditon is always looking for people to bring into his up-and-coming bathing town. Mr. Parker’s sister, Diana, through some of her friends, finds two families that she hopes to get there — “the West Indians and the seminary.”

“The West Indians,” she continued, “whom I look upon as the most desirable of the two … prove to be a Mrs. Griffiths and her family. I know them only through others. You must have heard me mention Miss Capper, the particular friend of my very particular friend Fanny Noyce. Now, Miss Capper is extremely intimate with a Mrs. Darling, who is on terms of constant correspondence with Mrs. Griffiths herself. Only a short chain, you see, between us, and not a link wanting. … Mrs. Griffiths … wrote to ask the opinion of her friend Mrs. Darling. Miss Capper happened to be staying with Mrs. Darling when Mrs. Griffiths’ letter arrived and was consulted on the question. She wrote the same day to Fanny Noyce and mentioned it to her; and Fanny, all alive for us, instantly took up her pen and forwarded the circumstance to me — except as to names, which have but lately transpired. … I answered Fanny’s letter by the same post and pressed for the recommendation of Sanditon.”

Unfortunately, the West Indians and the seminary turn out to be the same people, much to Miss Diana’s mortification. “No part of it, however, seemed to trouble her for long. There were so many to share in the shame and the blame that probably, when she had divided out their proper portions to Mrs. Darling, Miss Capper, Fanny Noyce, Mrs. Charles Dupuis and Mrs. Charles Dupuis’s neighbour, there might be a mere trifle of reproach remaining for herself.”

(The text of Sanditon on Wikisource.)

FannyJuvenilia, by Jane Austen. In her Juvenilia, Jane Austen wrote A Tour through Wales—in a Letter from a young Lady— in which there is a Fanny who takes “a great many Drawings of the Country, which are very beautiful, tho’ perhaps not such exact resemblances as might be wished, from their being taken as she ran along.”

My Dear Clara

I have been so long on the ramble that I have not till now had it in my power to thank you for your Letter.— We left our dear home on last Monday month; and proceeded on our tour through Wales, which is a principality contiguous to England and gives the title to the Prince of Wales. We travelled on horseback by preference. My Mother rode upon our little poney and Fanny and I walked by her side or rather ran, for my Mother is so fond of riding fast that she galloped all the way. You may be sure that we were in a fine perspiration when we came to our place of resting. Fanny has taken a great many Drawings of the Country, which are very beautiful, tho’ perhaps not such exact resemblances as might be wished, from their being taken as she ran along. It would astonish you to see all the Shoes we wore out in our Tour. We determined to take a good Stock with us and therefore each took a pair of our own besides those we set off in. However we were obliged to have them both capped and heelpeiced at Carmarthen, and at last when they were quite gone, Mama was so kind as to lend us a pair of blue Sattin Slippers, of which we each took one and hopped home from Hereford delightfully—

I am your ever affectionate

Elizabeth Johnson.

(The text of A Tour through Wales on Project Gutenberg and Pemberly.)

Fanny BloomfieldAgnes Grey, by Anne Brontë. In an attempt to help her family, young Agnes Grey becomes a governess to the Bloomfield family: Tom, Mary Ann, and Fanny, “a very pretty little girl … she had not learned anything yet; but in a few days, she would be four years old, and then she might take her first lesson in the alphabet, and be promoted to the schoolroom”. Agnes soon finds that her three young charges are not as sweet and innocent as their parents believe they are.

When little Fanny came into the schoolroom, I hoped she would be mild and inoffensive, at least; but a few days, if not a few hours, sufficed to destroy the illusion: I found her a mischievous, intractable little creature, given up to falsehood and deception, young as she was, and alarmingly fond of exercising her two favourite weapons of offence and defence: that of spitting in the faces of those who incurred her displeasure, and bellowing like a bull when her unreasonable desires were not gratified.  As she, generally, was pretty quiet in her parents’ presence, and they were impressed with the notion of her being a remarkably gentle child, her falsehoods were readily believed, and her loud uproars led them to suspect harsh and injudicious treatment on my part; and when, at length, her bad disposition became manifest even to their prejudiced eyes, I felt that the whole was attributed to me.

Though she had hoped by firmness and perseverance to succeed, Agnes was dismissed before the year was out. She goes on to be the governess of the Murray family, and eventually marries a rector, Edward Weston. To Agnes, Mr. Weston appears like “the morning star in my horizon, to save me from the fear of utter darkness; …. I was glad to see that all the world was not made up of Bloomfields [and] Murrays”.

(Agnes Grey on Project Gutenberg.)

Fanny Cleaver (a.k.a. Jenny Wren) – Our Mutual Friend, by Charles Dickens. Fanny Cleaver is the real name of Jenny Wren (“she had long ago chosen to bestow upon herself the appellation of Miss Jenny Wren”), the dolls’ dressmaker, also referred to as “the person of the house”. She is “a child—a dwarf—a girl—a something”—a “queer little figure” with a “queer but not ugly little face”. She is a “child in years”, a “woman in self-reliance and trial.” Her “back’s bad, and [her] legs are queer” — they cause her great pain, but the “dexterity of her nimble fingers was remarkable”. Her father is a weak man, never sober. She supports him, calling him her child, and often scolding him viciously. He wastes her hard-earned money on drink. Her mother is dead. Despite her deformities, she has “bright long fair hair which grew very luxuriant and beautiful” and a sweet, silvery voice. She buys scraps of fabric from a Mr. Riah, whom she calls her fairy godmother (he calls her Cinderella). She puts pepper in several plasters that she puts on a Mr. Fledgeby, in revenge for him deceiving her about Mr. Riah. She is a friend of Lizzie Hexam. Eugene Wrayburn hires a woman to teach Lizzie and Jenny. When Lizzie leaves London to avoid Mr. Wrayburn, she corresponds with Jenny. Though Eugene frequents Jenny’s house, Jenny refuses to tell him where Lizzie is. Her father, however, steals one of her letters in order to sell the address to Eugene. When Eugene goes to find Lizzie, he barely survives an attempted murder. He can hardly speak, but he asks for Jenny, and it is Jenny who understands him when is asking that Lizzie be entreated to marry him. Near the end of the book, in what is called a “special” event, Jenny meets Mr. Sloppy, a simple friend of the Boffins’. He comes to pick up a doll, and is much struck by Jenny. When he leaves, he tells her, “I’ll soon come back again” — perhaps suggesting that Sloppy will be the embodiment of Jenny’s imaginary Him — “Him who is coming to court and marry me”.

(Our Mutual Friend on Project Gutenberg; Jenny Wren was played by Helena Hughes in the 1958 adaptation Our Mutual Friend; in 1976 – Polly James; in 1998 – Katy Murphy.)

Fanny DavilowDaniel Deronda, by George Eliot. Mrs. Davilow is Gwendolen Harleth’s mother. There is a second Fanny Davilow in the story, one of Gwendolen’s half-sisters (the others being Alice, Bertha, and Isabel). Mrs. Davilow is a kind, but weak and sorrowful, woman. She “had never seemed to get much enjoyment out of life”. Her second husband made her unhappy. After his death, she moves to a cottage near her brother. She is the mother of the splendid Gwendolen Harleth. The only child from Mrs. Davilow’s first marriage, Gwendolen is the favorite daughter of her mother. Mrs. Davilow spoils her, and is rather in awe of her.

(Daniel Deronda on Project Gutenberg; Mrs. Davilow was played by Yvonne Coulette in the 1970 adaptation Daniel Deronda; in 2002, she was played by Amanda Root and her daughter Fanny by Anna Popplewell.)

Fanny DombeyDombey and Son, by Charles Dickens. Fanny is the wife of Paul Dombey. He is the head of the company Dombey and Son. Fanny dies soon after giving birth to a son, also named Paul, who is destined by his father to become the son in Dombey and Son. During Fanny’s illness, Mr. Dombey sister, Mrs. Chick, is convinced that “it’s nothing whatever. … An effort is necessary. That’s all. If dear Fanny were a Dombey!—But I daresay she’ll make it; I have no doubt she’ll make it. Knowing it to be required of her, as a duty, of course she’ll make it.” Paul and Fanny’s first child, Florence, is neglected by her father. He cares only for a son, but Fanny loves her, and, even when she is dying, her daughter’s “voice, familiar and dearly loved, awakened some show of consciousness, even at that ebb.” Fanny dies “clasping her little daughter to her breast”. Her husband mourns her loss more for his son’s sake than his own — “almost angry sorrow. That the life and progress on which he built such hopes, should be endangered in the outset by so mean a want; that Dombey and Son should be tottering for a nurse, was a sore humiliation.” Only Florence truly mourns for the loss of her mother. Mrs. Chick thinks that Florence “has poor dear Fanny’s nature. She’ll never make an effort in after-life, I’ll venture to say. Never!” Her assessment of her sister-in-law is, “Why, poor dear Fanny was interesting … Certainly interesting. She had not that air of commanding superiority which one would somehow expect, almost as a matter of course, to find in my brother’s wife; nor had she that strength and vigour of mind which such a man requires. … But she was pleasing … extremely so. And she meant!—oh, dear, how well poor Fanny meant!”

(Dombey and Son on Project Gutenberg; Fanny Dombey appears briefly in the 1983 miniseries Dombey and Son.)

Fanny DorritLittle Dorrit, by Charles Dickens. Fanny is the elder sister of the titular character, Amy Dorrit, and the daughter of William Dorrit and his wife, who was also named Fanny. She is, in the eyes of her most persistent admirer, “a glorious girl who hasn’t an atom of” “nonsense about her”. Fanny is born before her father is confined in the Marshalsea debtor’s prison. She is “a pretty girl of a far better figure and much more developed than Little Dorrit, though looking much younger in the face when the two were observed together”. Her sister Amy helps her to get dancing lessons from another inmate of the prison, and Fanny becomes a dancer in the theatre where her uncle plays the clarinet. It is there that she meets Edmund Sparkler, the son of Mrs. Merdle by her first marriage. Mr. Sparkler becomes enamored by Fanny, who, by rejecting his advances, brings him to the point of proposing marriage. Mrs. Merdle tries to bribe Fanny to not marry Sparkler. Fanny has no intention of marrying him anyway — “Like him? He is almost an idiot.” — but fully intends to make his mother pay for her insolence. When her father receives a fortune and leaves the Marshalsea, he takes Fanny, Amy, and their brother Edward abroad, where Fanny again meets up with Mrs. Merdle and Sparkler. Mrs. Merdle pretends that she has never seen Fanny before and Sparkler renews his attentions to her — “The devotion of Mr Sparkler was only to be equalled by the caprice and cruelty of his enslaver.” However, in order to “have a more defined and distinct position”, and so that she can oppose and compete with his mother, Fanny finally agrees to marry Sparkler. After her marriage, Fanny’s father loses all his money when Mr. Merdle’s bank is revealed to be a fraud. Mrs. Merdle comes to live with her son and daughter-in-law, and “Mrs Sparkler and Mrs Merdle, inhabiting different floors … arrayed themselves to fight it out in the lists of Society, sworn rivals”, leaving poor Sparkler “not knowing how to keep the peace between them, but humbly inclining to the opinion that they could do no better than agree that they were both remarkably fine women, and that there was no nonsense about either of them—for which gentle recommendation they united in falling upon him frightfully”. Fanny’s sister Amy gives “a mother’s care … to Fanny’s neglected children” and leaves “that lady going into Society for ever and a day”.

(Little Dorrit on Project Gutenberg; in the 1988 adaptation Little Dorrit, Fanny Dorrit is played by Amelda Brown; in 2008 – Emma Pierson gave a delightful performance as Fanny Dorrit.)

Fanny HamleyWives and Daughters, by Elizabeth Gaskell. Fanny is the name of Osborne and Roger Hamley’s “little sister … who died”. When their mother, Madame Hamley, is dying, she sometimes mistakes Molly Gibson for her daughter and calls her “Fanny”. Molly falls in love with Roger, but he falls for her step-sister, Cynthia Kirkpatrick.

Molly had keen insight into her ‘sister’s’ heart; and she knew that Cynthia did not love Roger, Molly could have cried with passionate regret at the thought of the unvalued treasure lying at Cynthia’s feet; and it would have been a merely unselfish regret. It was the old fervid tenderness. ‘Do not wish for the moon, O my darling, for I cannot give it thee.’ Cynthia’s love was the moon Roger yearned for; and Molly saw that it was far away and out of reach, else would she have strained her heart-chords to give it to Roger.

‘I am his sister,’ she would say to herself. ‘That old bond is not done away with, though he is too much absorbed by Cynthia to speak about it just now. His mother called me “Fanny;” it was almost like an adoption. I must wait and watch, and see if I can do anything for my brother.’

There is also a Fanny Osborne mentioned in passing in the story. She is the granddaughter of Mrs. Goodenough. The Miss Brownings invite Molly and Cynthia “to come to a very friendly tea and a round game afterwards; this mild piece of gaiety being designed as an attention to three of Mrs. Goodenough’s grandchildren—two young ladies and their school-boy brother—who were staying on a visit to their grandmamma.” Fanny has a sister named Lizzie and a brother named William.

(Wives and Daughters on Project Gutenberg; Fanny Osborne is played by Keylee Jade Flanders in the 1999 adaptation Wives and Daughters — she is listed as Fanny Goodenough in the credits.)

Frances Evans HenriThe Professor, by Charlotte Brontë. In The Professor, William Crimsworth leaves England and becomes a teacher in Belgium. There he meets Mdlle. Henri who teaches “needlework, or netting, or lace-mending, or some such flimsy art” at the same school. She attends Professor Crimsworth’s English lessons “to qualify herself for a higher department of education” by perfecting her knowledge of English. He becomes interested in her. He finds “her possessed in a somewhat remarkable degree of at least two good points, viz., perseverance and a sense of duty; … capable of applying to study, of contending with difficulties. … she liked to learn, but hated to teach”. William tells Frances “Taste and fancy are not the highest gifts of the human mind, but such as they are you possess them—not probably in a paramount degree, but in a degree beyond what the majority can boast.” He wonders “how she came to be possessed of two English baptismal names, Frances and Evans, in addition to her French surname, also whence she derived her good accent” and finds that she was born in Geneva of a Swiss father and an English mother. Her parents died and she lives with her father’s sister. She finds teaching lace-mending a tedious occupation, and she uses the money she earns in trying to educate herself enough to find a better position as a governess or school-teacher. Mr. Crimsworth and Frances fall in love, and marry. They both continue teaching and eventually move to England. They have one child, a son, Victor, born in the third year of their marriage.

(The Professor on Project Gutenberg.)

Fanny RobinFar From the Madding Crowd, Thomas Hardy. Fanny Robin is a servant of Bathsheba Everdene’s. She “had no friends in her childhood”, but Farmer Boldwood “took her and put her to school, and got her her place” with Bathsheba’s uncle. Fanny runs away to be with her sweetheart, Sergeant Francis Troy, soon after Bathsheba inherits her uncle’s farm. Troy promised to marry Fanny, but, when she accidentally goes to the wrong church, he declares “You fool, for so fooling me! … I don’t go through that experience again for some time, I warrant you!” and leaves her. Distraught, she also leaves. Later, Troy goes to the farm of Bathsheba Everdene to look for Fanny, but becomes infatuated with Bathsheba and marries her, even though he loves Fanny “best upon the whole”. Troy says of his wife, “she has a will—not to say a temper, and I shall be a mere slave to her. I could do anything with poor Fanny Robin.” He doesn’t treat his wife well. A mere two months after marrying Bathsheba, Troy comes across Fanny, who is coming back to her former home. He gives her all the money he has and promises her more when he can get it—“You shan’t want—I’ll see that, Fanny”. Before he can meet her again, however, she dies in childbirth at the workhouse. Bathsheba declares, “And … this woman is your victim; and I not less than she.” Troy tells her, “‘This woman is more to me, dead as she is, than ever you were, or are, or can be. If Satan had not tempted me with that face of yours, and those cursed coquetries, I should have married her. I never had another thought till you came in my way. Would to God that I had; but it is all too late!’” He has a fine tombstone made for Fanny and attempts to plant flowers over her grave, but the rain washes them away, and he runs away. When Troy is later shot and killed, Bathsheba has him buried next to Fanny and the child.

(Far From the Madding Crowd is on Project Gutenberg here and here; Fanny Robin is played by Prunella Ransome in the 1967 adaptation Far From the Madding Crowd; in 1998 – Natasha Little.)

Fan ScroogeA Christmas Carol, by Charles Dickens. Fan is the nickname of Ebenezer Scrooge’s sister. She dies before the story begins, but she is seen briefly when the Ghost of Christmas Past shows Scrooge a scene from his youth.

Scrooge’s former self …. was not reading now, but walking up and down despairingly. Scrooge looked at the Ghost, and, with a mournful shaking of his head, glanced anxiously towards the door.

It opened; and a little girl, much younger than the boy, came darting in, and, putting her arms about his neck, and often kissing him, addressed him as her “dear, dear brother.”

“I have come to bring you home, dear brother!” said the child, clapping her tiny hands, and bending down to laugh. “To bring you home, home, home!”

“Home, little Fan?” returned the boy.

“Yes!” said the child, brimful of glee. “Home for good and all. Home for ever and ever. Father is so much kinder than he used to be, that home’s like Heaven! He spoke so gently to me one dear night when I was going to bed, that I was not afraid to ask him once more if you might come home; and he said Yes, you should; and sent me in a coach to bring you. And you’re to be a man!” said the child, opening her eyes; “and are never to come back here; but first we’re to be together all the Christmas long, and have the merriest time in all the world.”

“You are quite a woman, little Fan!” exclaimed the boy.

She clapped her hands and laughed, and tried to touch his head; but, being too little, laughed again, and stood on tiptoe to embrace him. Then she began to drag him, in her childish eagerness, towards the door; and he, nothing loath to go, accompanied her. …

“Always a delicate creature, whom a breath might have withered,” said the Ghost. “But she had a large heart!”

“So she had,” cried Scrooge. “You’re right. I will not gainsay it, Spirit. God forbid!”

Fan is the mother of Scrooge’s nephew Fred, a jovial, good-hearted, generous man, who tries to get his uncle to condescend to be happy, and is over-joyed at Scrooge’s reformation.

Fan is thought to be based on Charles Dickens’s oldest sister Frances (Fanny) Elizabeth Dickens (1810–1848). Dickens was very close to his talented sister. She was gifted in music, both in singing and as a musician, and studied at the Royal Academy of Music. She was allowed out from the academy on Sundays, and would go with Charles to spend the day with their father in the Marshalsea. She married a fellow student from the academy, Henry Burnett (1812-1893). They both taught music in Manchester. One of their children, Henry Jr. (Nov. 25, 1839-Jan. 29, 1849), was crippled. They had two other children, Elizabeth (born in 1837) and Charles (born in 1841). Dickens based his Paul Dombey Jr. (Dombey and Son) and Tiny Tim (A Christmas Carol) on little Henry. Fanny died of consumption on September 2, 1848, at the age of 38. Dickens wrote that when his sister “became aware of her hopeless state … she resigned herself, after an hour’s unrest and struggle, with extraordinary sweetness and constancy.”

(A Christmas Carol is on Project Gutenberg here and here; Dickens’ letter to John Forster describing a visit to his terminally ill sister Fanny; there are about a gazillion adaptations of A Christmas Carol — a few of Fan’s depictions in them are listed here and here.)

Fanny SqueersNicholas Nickleby, by Charles Dickens. The title character, Nicholas Nickleby, meets Fanny Squeers when he comes to work as a teacher in her father’s school, Dotheboys Hall. By the time he meets her, he has already developed a disgust for the school, his situation, and, especially, his employer, Mr. Squeers. Miss Squeers, finding out from her parents that Nicholas is the son of a gentleman and has “a touch of pride about him”, becomes interested in him. Her servant gives her further particulars about Nicholas, describing “his beautiful dark eyes, and his sweet smile, and his straight legs—upon which last-named articles she laid particular stress; the general run of legs at Dotheboys Hall being crooked”. Nicholas shows no “indication of being stricken to the heart by Miss Squeers’s charms”, but she falls in love with him the first time she sees him — primarily because she is jealous of her friend, ’Tilda Price, who is five years younger than she, and is already engaged. And, then, Nicholas is a gentleman’s son, unlike ’Tilda’s fiancé, John Browdie, who is only a corn-factor’s son. Fanny is habitually ill-tempered, treating her servant and others badly. “She was not tall like her mother, but short like her father; from the former she inherited a voice of harsh quality; from the latter a remarkable expression of the right eye, something akin to having none at all.” She attempts to bring Nicholas to a declaration by fainting, but is horrified when he declares, that “This is the grossest and wildest delusion … that ever human being laboured under …. I have not one thought, wish, or hope, connected with her, unless it be … the one object, … of being one day able to turn my back upon this accursed place, never to … even think of it—but with loathing and disgust.” Miss Squeers is enraged at having been refused by a teacher — right in ’Tilda’s presence! “But, there was one thing clear in the midst of her mortification; and that was, that she hated and detested Nicholas with all the narrowness of mind and littleness of purpose worthy a descendant of the house of Squeers. And there was one comfort too; and that was, that every hour in every day she could wound his pride, and goad him with the infliction of some slight, or insult, or deprivation”. She eventually breaks with ’Tilda because she and her husband become friends with Nicholas. Even so, Mr. Browdie saves Miss Squeers from being dosed with “brimstone-and-treacle” when Dotheboys Hall breaks up.

(Nicholas Nickleby on Project Gutenberg; There are numerous adaptations of Nicholas Nickleby — Fanny Squeers is played by Vida Hope – 1947, Rosalind Knight – 1957, Karin MacCarthy – 1968, Isabelle Amyes – 1977, Suzanne Bertish – 1982, Debbie Chazen – 2001, and Heather Goldenhersh – 2002.)

Fanny ThorntonNorth and South, by Elizabeth Gaskell. Fanny Thornton is the younger sister of the mill-owner John Thornton. Their father died under miserable circumstances. John got employment in a draper’s shop and supported himself, his mother, and his sister on his earnings. He raised himself to his position as mill-owner. Fanny was too young for their hardships to have made much of an impression on her, and she grows up a fretful girl, fancying herself delicate. Mrs. Thornton has “an unconscious contempt for a weak character; and Fanny was weak in the very points in which her mother and brother were strong. Mrs. Thornton … winced as she made this acknowledgment to herself about her daughter, it only gave her a kind of pitying tenderness of manner towards her”. Fanny dislikes “dirty, smoky” Milton, where her brother works, and wants to travel to London and the Alhambra. Her brother wants her to be kind to the Hales, a family new to Milton, but Fanny thinks that Miss Hale is not accomplished, since she cannot play the piano, and that she couldn’t ever like her. When Mr. Thornton’s mill is attacked by a mob, Fanny runs “screaming up-stairs as if pursued at every step, and had thrown herself in hysterical sobbing on the sofa.” When the gates are broken down, she faints. After the mob has been dispersed, the Thorntons “would have been very silent, but for Fanny’s perpetual description of her own feelings; how she had been alarmed—and then thought they were gone—and then felt sick and faint and trembling in every limb.” When Mrs. Thornton and Mr. Thornton seek out the daughter of an old friend and find her ill of a “catching” fever, they care for her. “So, though she was afraid at the time, it has all ended well.” She gets engaged to a rich gentleman, a great deal older than she. “His name is Watson; and his mills are somewhere out beyond Hayleigh; it’s a very good marriage, for all he’s got such gray hair.” “Mr. Thornton was only too glad to mark his grateful approbation of any sensible man, who could be captivated by Fanny’s second-rate airs and graces, by giving her ample means for providing herself with the finery, which certainly rivalled, if it did not exceed, the lover in her estimation.” After she is married, Fanny’s husband offers Mr. Thornton a share in a speculation, and is vexed when Mr. Thornton refuses.

(North and South on Project Gutenberg; Fanny Thornton was played by Pamela Moiseiwitsch in the 1975 adaptation North and South and by Jo Joyner in 2004.)

FranciscaMeasure for Measure, by William Shakespeare. Francisca is a nun that appears in one of the scenes (Act I, Scene IV. A nunnery.) in Measure for Measure. In the scene, she is talking to Isabella, one of the main characters of the play.

ISABELLA
And have you nuns no farther privileges?

FRANCISCA
Are not these large enough?

ISABELLA
Yes, truly; I speak not as desiring more;
But rather wishing a more strict restraint
Upon the sisterhood, the votarists of Saint Clare.

LUCIO
[Within] Ho! Peace be in this place!

ISABELLA
Who’s that which calls?

FRANCISCA
It is a man’s voice. Gentle Isabella,
Turn you the key, and know his business of him;
You may, I may not; you are yet unsworn.
When you have vow’d, you must not speak with men
But in the presence of the prioress:
Then, if you speak, you must not show your face,
Or, if you show your face, you must not speak.
He calls again; I pray you, answer him.

And then Francisca leaves.

(Measure for Measure on Wikipedia and Project Gutenberg; Francisca is portrayed on film by Romy Baskerville – 1995 and Eileen Page – 1979.)

Others

Of course, there are many other characters in literature with the name Fanny (or a variant of that name). In her book The Penguin Classic Baby Name Book, Grace Hamlin wrote of several other Fannies:

Henry Fielding wrote significant characters named Fanny into both Joseph Andrews and Amelia. In the former, satiric novel, Fanny Goodwill is the simple, beautiful county girl who loves the hero. She travels to London to find him and her virtue is under constant threat. Fanny Matthews of Amelia is exactly the opposite. Our hero Captain Booth encounters her while he is serving a prison sentence, and she entices him into an affair despite the many virtues of his wife Amelia. …

Many of the English Victorian novelists used Fanny for characters of various importance. … More conventional [than the diabolical Fanny Bloomfield of Anne Brontë's Agnes Grey] is the ladylike Fanny Robarts of Anthony Trollope’s Framley Parsonage. She is the wife of the vicar at Framley, and the very model of a Victorian wife, except that she can be quite fierce where her husband’s interests are concerned. …

Henry James is modern enough to be suspected of irony, especially in the creation of secondary characters. In The Awkward Age, Fanny Cashmore is a magnificent but stupid member of Nanda Brookenham’s social circle. She is always on the verge of leaving the comforts of Mr. Cashmore’s home for the thrills of life with her lover. Fanny Assingham in The Golden Bowl is not a fool like Mrs. Cashmore. Having promoted the marriage between Maggie Verver and Prince Amerigo, she watches with horror as the prince and Maggie’s friend Charlotte Stant seem to resume a love affair.

…. In Émile Zola’s The Earth, Fanny Delhomme is the one member of the unfortunate Fouan family to have avoided the miseries of agricultural life. Her husband is both rich and kind to her, so she escapes hunger and domestic violence, unlike most of the female characters in the book.2

…. Emily Brontë writes a much smaller part [than her sister Charlotte's Frances Evans Henri in The Professor] for Frances Earnshaw in Wuthering Heights. She is merely Hindley Earnshaw’s wife, Cathy’s sister-in-law, who bears Hindley a son and dies before she can lose her optimistic high spirits.3

Francesca da Rimini is a character in the Divine Comedy, by Dante Alighieri. She appears in Canto V of Inferno. Dante based her on the historical Francesca da Rimini (or Francesca da Polenta). Francesca’s father wanted to marry her to Giovanni Malatesta, but knew that she would refuse him since he was deformed. The marriage, therefore, was performed by proxy, with Giovanni’s brother Paolo standing in for him. Francesca fell in love with Paolo and was not informed until after the wedding that it was actually Giovanni that she was marrying. Francesca and Paolo’s story also appears in a poem by Tchaikovsky, an opera composed by Riccardo Zandonai, and an opera by Sergei Rachmaninoff, as well as a number of other operas.

_______________________________

Footnotes:

1 Grace Hamlin, The Penguin Classic Baby Name Book: 2,000 Names from the World’s Great Literature (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd., 2001), pp. 312-13.

2 Hamlin, pp. 312-14.

3 Ibid., p. 321.